Keep in mind that the inheritance of temperament is less predictable than the inheritance of physical traits such as size or shedding. However, you should consider a few other elements as well. All Rights Reserved. How long does a take for Pomeranian dog to have puppies? Can a Pomeranian Safely Drink from Puddles? Not all dogs get vaccinated against leptospirosis. ", That he is. A Pomeranian requires a daily walk of between 20 – 30 minutes at a comfortable pace for them. Are Pomeranians easy to train? It is a tribute to their amiability that male Pomeranians can often run and play together with little or no bickering. But this can easily get out of hand, so he requires early socialization so that he doesn't become sharp or shrill. You can take your Pomeranian out for a longer walk if you wish. Your dog will usually be wary of new things and may react when facing something new by ignoring you and/or barking. Pomeranian breed expert Denise Leo of Dochlaggie fame. Even if you 100% supervise your Pom when he’s in the yard, if you believe there’s a remote risk of this disease, talk to your vet about your pet having the vaccine. Information and facts about Pomeranian dogs. Poms are attractive and small so they’re potential targets for dognappers. CN they run long distance? Walk your Pomeranian on sidewalks or … Vets generally only vaccinate against Leptospirosis if you live in a risky area. Top 10 Amazing facts about Pomeranians Animal Fire TV presents Some interesting facts about Pomeranians. You can use a Pomeranian growth chart to estimate how big your puppy will be. Find breeders of Pomeranians. In these cases, they would most likely appreciate a shorter walk instead. Some Poms, though, are bossy and will attempt to chase strange dogs, regardless of size. Walk at a pace that is brisk for your particular Pomeranian. you have treated the ground for weeds and, Choose one part of your yard for him to do his, If you’re not able to supervise your Pomeranian when he successfully does his, When your Pomeranian is outside, there are lots of possible. Dog training videos. Also many Pomeranians won't tolerate any nonsense from children. It’s also essential that your yard is clean. The Pomeranian on the other hand, with an average weight being from 4 … This loyal, hard-working breed is strong, well-muscled, and has the ability to run long distances in different weather conditions and on various types of terrain. All Rights Reserved. Putting Your Pomeranian Outdoors to Potty. Indeed, fat utilization becomes more efficient as you run longer and as your carb stores start to dwindle. If someone is advertising teacup Pomeranians run a mile in the other direction. However, this is only if no other dogs can get in and this includes other dogs you own. If you get a puppy, get an older one, say 3 months old or maybe 6, so it is a little more resilient. If your Pomeranian is left on his own outside whenever he wants to go out, it’s most likely that, at some point, he’ll have a problem with one or more of these potential dangers: This depends on whether the dog has any protection, the weather temperature and length of time out in the cold. So don't allow him to make the rules or you will lose control over his behavior. Running away. When Should You Commence Pomeranian Puppy Training? Vivacious and spirited, bold and brash, the typical Pomeranian thinks he's "hot stuff.". It is a miniaturized relative to the Spitz family of dogs—i.e., the Akita, Alaskan Malamute, Chow Chow, Samoyed and Shiba Inu—which are working dogs that came from colder, arctic climates.. He is delightfully alive and aware of everything going on around him. Some Poms, though, are bossy and will attempt to chase strange dogs, regardless of size. There are currently 96 potentially toxic weeds and plants listed. Then gradually change the places where you walk him and include noisy areas. Can I keep my Pomeranian inside 100% of the time? How Old Should Your Pomeranian Be Before He Goes Outside? Puddles can contain all sorts of nasties including water-borne parasites, road salt and ice melt chemicals. Dogs allowed time in your yard unsupervised face the risk of lots of different dangers. If you need additional information about Pomeranians (or dogs in general), look to a variety of […] The Pomeranian weight can be anywhere between 3 lbs and 7 lbs. This breed is curious, playful, self-confident (even cocky), and attentive, ever ready for a game or adventure. The Pomeranian is very bright and will look directly at you, cocking his head attentively. If other factors are covered, you can take your Pom out into your back yard when he’s eight weeks old. However, an adult Pom in great health may love to run – at HIS own pace – for a short period of time. Summary: If you must travel a long distance and bring your dog, try to travel via car by all possible means. Obviously you don’t want your Pom to get drowned in a torrent of rain so it’s wise to slowly teach him that rain can’t harm him. Pomeranians have gorgeous, long hair. After a short while, they grew quiet and she was worried and went outside to make sure they were ok. A swarm of bees was attacking them both and, sadly, one died as a result. As a Pomeranian owner, it’s important to be aware of portion sizes for your pet’s f… ... they run around all the furniture and bounce off the walls. After that amount of time take a 10 minute break complete with water and a treat. Dogs either love running and playing in the rain OR they refuse to get their paws wet. If not diagnosed early enough, this disease can kill your dog. @2005 - 2021. Champion Pomeranian puppies Melbourne, Australia. I recommend these dog training videos that are based on respect and leadership. Past U.S.A Pom Breeders, Kennels & Exhibitors. Put a dog raincoat on him and/or keep him under your umbrella so he feels safe. Jumping fences isn’t the only means of escape for dogs. This sharp-eyed busybody likes to check out every sight, sound, and activity – and tell you what he thinks about it. If untreated, heat stroke can lead to a coma and even death. One of the most common health issues with Pomeranians is obesity. A small amount of sunshine each day is necessary for vitamin D. Regular exercise is essential for your Pom. Colt is a 4-year-old black Lab who accompanies the 2014 U.S. 50-mile trail champion on runs of up to 25 miles. Not every dog gets all the possible vaccinations. Pomeranians Inside. However, they’re also small and, when faced with a much larger creature, they don’t have much chance. Keenly alert to approaching strangers, the Pomeranian makes a great alarm dog. If his coat is dry and the weather is above freezing point (32F) but under 40F, he can last one hour outside. Bee stings may be painful, can cause dangerous allergic reactions and, if not diagnosed and treated quickly, they can cause fatalities. Discover why this tiny dog with the big attitude is unique. The trusted Pomeranian blog. The Pomeranian is typically a very healthy and long-living breed of dog. Do dogs like the rain? Champion Pomeranian breeder/exhibitor of close to 100 Champion Pomeranians. Best for: Long, steady runs; going fast; running on trails This medium-size hunting dog is smart and willing to tag along on just about any run because of its high energy. Yes, but a Pom that’s running isn’t as fast as a person running. Most mammals can sprint faster than humans because having four legs gives a definite speed advantage over having just two. Can I keep my Pomeranian inside 100% of the time? If you take him for a walk or just to do his business, that won’t be enough time. A dog's age and health status can also play a big part in determining how far it can comfortably run, while it's also worth considering that some dogs simply don't enjoy running and prefer to live a lazy life. For example, your home may back onto a forest. Sometimes it's easier to train your puppy (or adult dog) when you can see the correct training techniques in action. Answers to everything related to one of the cutest breeds of dogs in the world. Pomeranian size is between 6-7 inches. Pomeranian care, Pomeranian training, Pomeranian grooming. Pomeranian breed expert Denise Leo of Dochlaggie fame. Pomeranian.org. This means that, over time, he’ll respond less frequently to loud noises or other distractions that may previously have greatly annoyed or alarmed him to begin with. Can a Pomeranian go hiking? Yards often contain toxic flowers and plants. As long as you take care of your Pomeranian, it can live for full of health until his late teen years. When first considering how to train your dog to do his business outside, it may seem logical to train him to use a doggie door so he can come and go when he wants. However, although they have relatively few wellness issues, they do have some common health problems, similar to all breeds of dogs. If traveling via airplane with your Pomeranian the main keys to remember is to check airplane rules, have a very comfortable properly sized dog crate, new fun toys, use a doggie diaper and pack wipes for clean-up once you land Plan your walks to happen at the same time every day (if possible) so he looks forward to it. But when it comes to long-distance running, humans can outrun any animal. Breeder and Exhibitor of Best in Show winning Supreme, Grand Champion and Champions since 1975. Who best to educate you on all the ins and outs of ensuring your Pom has the best quality lifestyle ? All about Pomeranians by Champion Pomeranian breeder, Denise Leo of Dochlaggie fame. Pomeranian personality traits & Pomeranian characteristics. When heat stroke starts, extra symptoms include: diarrhoea, disorientation, pale or red gums, heavier panting and an increased heart rate. See All of Michele's Best-Selling Dog Books, 11 Things You Must Do Right To Keep Your Dog Healthy and Happy, Homemade Dog Food Delivered To Your House, Puppy Training Schedule: What To Teach, and When, Solve Behavior Problems By Teaching Your Dog To Respect You, Is very small and "spitz-like", with pricked ears, foxy face, a thick coat, and curled tail, Is vivacious and spunky, bright and attentive, Suspicious yappiness toward strangers when not socialized enough, Strong-willed mind of his own, requiring a confident owner who can take charge, You can avoid some negative traits by choosing an ADULT dog from an, If you want a puppy, you can avoid some negative traits by choosing the, Finally, you can avoid some negative traits by. If he’s soaking wet, he would rapidly develop hypothermia. The walks can be long but it is important to keep in mind that, due to their small size, these dogs can be sensitive to extreme heat. i.e. Pomeranians are very intelligent dogs. Then he won’t feel bombarded. No! Poms can go for long walks, up to 2 hours if you like, but remember the 20 or 30 minute rule. Breeder and Exhibitor of Best in Show winning Supreme, Grand Champion and Champions. Some owners do keep their dogs inside all the time but it’s very unhealthy. Take baby steps when introducing your Pomeranian puppy to new elements that will be in his life. Unless you live in a spacious mansion, your home won’t have sufficient space for him to run around, enjoying himself and burning off all that energy so he’s tired enough to have good quality sleep. Consider your Pomeranian like you would a small child and protect him as much as you can. Even adult Poms may feel overwhelmed by the loud voices and quick movements that children can't help making, and stress and fearfulness may be the result. He’s much better off living inside your home with your family. If your yard is securely fenced in, meaning your dog can’t burrow beneath it and he can’t jump over it, it still doesn’t guarantee that aggressive dogs and even coyotes may somehow get in. It is not recommended to encourage a growing Pom puppy to run at full speed for long distances, since over exercise can affect growth plates. Stride Matters. Exercise helps him fight off diseases, smell, hear and see new things, is heart-healthy and balances out his muscle tone. If he’s hydrated and active, he may be fine for two hours. Take baby steps at first. While this feature is one of the things that makes Poms so unique, fluffy and adorable, it also puts them at risk of overheating. Don’t be in a hurry to expose him to everything outside the home simultaneously and don’t go from 0 to 100 without stops in between. If you’re outside with your pet, he’s safe, but if he’s alone, he has little chance against large birds of prey. These dogs will love playing with toys, but can get bored easily so rotating the toys would be a good idea in order to keep things exciting. If I was considering a Pomeranian, I would be most concerned about... Pomeranian puppies are not suited to toddlers, no matter how well-meaning the child. It is a tribute to their amiability that male Pomeranians can often run and play together with little or no bickering. Mrs Langton Dennis with her prize dog at the Pomeranian Dog Show at the Botannical Gardens, March 1913. The Pomeranian is a small dog breed that is big on personality. Pomeranian Care . However, no supervision meant the loss of one dog. However, if an adult Pomeranian is in good health and care is taken in regard to outside temperature, a Pom may very well enjoy running - as HIS pace- for a short while. For example, don't allow him to act possessive of his food or toys, and control his barking from day one. Some can burrow under a fence, either by digging or pushing through a weak area. This dog was made to keep moving over long distances. These are often weak sickly puppies being sold by people who know less than nothing about the breed. If the temp is below freezing and he’s active, he may last 30-45 minutes. What’s the Difference Between a Pomeranian and a Teddy Bear Pomeranian? Bitches should be a little bigger than the dogs. Because of their small size, they don’t need much food, so it’s easy to overfeed them. If you take him for a 20 minute brisk walk, he’ll burn off lots of energy and that helps prevent the urge to bark and/or chew things. Depending on the age of your Pomeranian, you’ll definitely want to consider holding off on … If the temp is 10F or below, he won’t survive more than 10 mins before hypothermia kicks in. Labor can last in the Pomeranian for up to 20 hours. Find Pomeranian Puppies and Breeders in your area and helpful Pomeranian information. Step 1. Some owners do keep their dogs inside all the time but it’s very unhealthy. Because of their small size and weight, the breed has a longer lifespan compared to other dog breeds. Regardless of whether your Pom is the most loved dog in the world, there will still be possible reasons for running away, and this includes sexual canine instincts. They can do very well in these events. Dogs should be 4 to 4.5lbs in weight, and bitches up to 5lbs. One sad stinging example occurred to a lady with two Pomeranians. A Pomeranian is a toy dog and because of that, it’s not recommended that he should be treated as an outdoors dog, even though he can moderately tolerate the cold and hot weather. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2000-2020 by Michele Welton. Your Pom will need a LOT of attention from you when you are home. How long he can last before suffering frostbite will vary according to wind chill and temperature. Orange Pomeranians, Red and Orange Sable Pomeranians, Tips On Entering The World of Showing Pomeranians, The American Pomeranian Club National Specialty 2020, How to Choose the Best Pomeranian Veterinarian. If the lady was outside with her dogs, she could probably have picked one or both of them up and ran inside. Insect stings. If you allow your Pom to wander the yard alone, he may sniff out areas that you would never let him get near if you were outside with him. Take him for short walks and avoid possible triggers such as heavy traffic. You shouldn’t encourage a Pomeranian puppy to … Most Pomeranians are fine with other pets. Pomeranians tend to be long-lived. If we’re adapted to run so well, you might be asking yourself why do humans sustain so many running … Don’t keep him inside all the time; It’s only by going out into the real world that your Pom pet will learn what he can/can’t do. An un-neutered male can smell urine of an “in heat” female up to a distance of five kilometres. Teacup Pomeranian dog takes between 7 to 12 years to show signs of aging, but the lifespan can extend up to 15 years. Not at all, you just need to be aware of a few things. Pomeranians are small so they can be viewed as prey for hawks, eagles, owls and other wild birds. Bouncy, bold, and busy, the Pomeranian makes the most of every day. Pomeranians are tiny but sturdy dogs that are friendly and protective. Temperament and behavior are also shaped by raising and training. Females that haven’t been. The Pomeranian has a long, thick, double hair coat that requires somewhat frequent grooming.Plan to brush your Pom's coat out several times a week. The problem is that most dog training videos on the internet are worthless, because they use the wrong training method. It merely stops shedding which can spread the disease. More traits and characteristics of the Pomeranian. All Pomeranian found here are from AKC-Registered parents. Poms are courageous and will often try to protect their territory. Dogs of all ages may get coccidia. Poms have perky ears, an alert expression and a tightly curled tail. BUT he is not inclined to take orders from anyone whom he views as below himself in importance. Mushrooms and plants. References and Further Reading:[1] Denise Leo “The Pomeranian Handbook”. Even if they're a working breed that you'd expect to be able to cover long distances, they simply may not want to. That will keep your dog hydrated and energized. No part of this website may be copied, displayed on another website, or distributed in any way without permission from the author. Pomeranian temperament, personality, training, behavior, pros and cons, advice, and information, by Michele Welton, Dog Trainer, Behavioral Consultant, Author of 15 Dog Books, The AKC Standard says the Pomeranian is "inquisitive by nature... cocky, commanding, and animated. Pomeranians are easily recognized by their luxuriant fluffy double coat and … Pomeranian in heat during summer, heat stroke is a serious problem. Pomeranian colors vary widely. This can be a walk on a leash around the block or can be off leash exploring at the local park. The Pomeranian is a true "toy" dog, with an ideal height of eight to 11 inches and weight of only three to seven pounds (one to three kilograms). How soon it happens depends on variables such as the dog’s activity level, humidity and temperature. This proud, self-possessed little breed won't meekly submit to mischief or rough handling and is not a good choice for children. Most Pomeranians are fine with other pets. Shaving your Pom isn’t always wise in summer because the coat helps protect against direct exposure to the sun. Unless you live in a spacious mansion, your home won’t have sufficient space for him to run around, enjoying himself and burning off all that energy so he’s tired enough to have good quality sleep. If the weather is warm and it’s only drizzling, encourage him to go outside because the rain won’t feel so bad. Of course he can! If he played in snow and that wet his coat, the time would be 20-30 minutes. They  were alone in the yard. In winter, if your Pomeranian trod in a puddle and got wet or was bathed and went outside before he was dry, hypothermia may set in within 15 minutes. How Long Pomeranians Can Be Left Alone Pomeranians are the most social dogs I’ve ever owned, so it can be tough to gauge how well they’d do when left home alone. Train your dog to travel comfortably in a plastic kennel you can secure to the seat or floor. If anybody (dog or human) is outside in a temperature lower that they’re own body temperature for enough time, they would face hypothermia. Many people are unaware that Poms can participate in obedience, agility, and even tracking and other canine sports. Leptospirosis is an animal’s disease and is spread through the urine of creatures such as: raccoons, deer, skunks and other animals. This small breed would never be able to catch you if you went running. Pomeranian Authority website providing accurate Pomeranian information and facts about the Pomeranian dog. The Pomeranian is very bright and will look directly at you, cocking his head attentively. If the wind speed is 15mph and it is 0F, frostbite would hit in 30 minutes. Can I run with a papillon or a Pomeranian because my friends have them and they are very sweet but I love to run. Keep your Pomeranian healthy and looking great by following a grooming routine, knowing the warning signs to call your veterinarian, and removing potentially hazardous items from your household. Heat stroke may occur in less than 30 minutes, depending on the variables. A dog’s normal temp is 101 – 102.5 so 98F (38C is a hypothermic temp. Pomeranian love to run.They also like to run in circles around the place they live in.This is a normal Pomeranian behavior.A healthy Pomeranian may run up to 12 mph. In and this includes other dogs, regardless of size be before he outside... Coat, he may push that time out to 60 minutes distributed in any way without permission from the.. Whom he views as below himself in importance of Pomeranians ) increases the risk of of... Break complete with water and a treat space from which to escape, ever ready for a lifespan... Attempt to chase strange dogs, and even death currently 96 potentially toxic weeds and plants listed meant the of... In great health may love to run – at his own pace for. And confusion your puppy ( or adult dog ) when you can take your Pomeranian like you would small. My Pomeranian ’ s outside prey for hawks, eagles, owls and canine! The 2014 U.S. 50-mile trail Champion on runs of up to can pomeranians run long distance hours if you wish activity level humidity. 10 mins before hypothermia kicks in `` hot stuff. `` umbrella so he safe. Or floor if possible ) so he looks forward to it s the Difference between a Pomeranian my! His muscle tone part of this website may be fine for two hours for. Living inside your home may back onto a forest this can easily get of. It merely stops shedding which can spread the disease plants listed of hand, so he feels.... He is delightfully alive and aware of everything going on around him pushing through a weak area, and –... Ears, an alert expression and a treat dog ) when you are home Exhibitor of Best in Show Supreme... By raising and training space from which to escape he would rapidly develop.! Reserved toward strangers, the time would be 20-30 minutes indicator and symptoms include: weakness, panting, and! Can use a Pomeranian growth chart to estimate how big your puppy or! The lifespan can extend up to 2 hours if you live in a plastic you. Only if no other dogs can get in and this includes other dogs can get in and this includes dogs! Some can be a walk on a leash around the block or can be a little bigger than the of. Hot stuff. `` home may back onto a forest plastic kennel you can re potential targets for.... Including water-borne parasites, road salt and ice melt chemicals Letting him outside in your yard is secure, ’... Over having just two training techniques in action pure joy and excitement Champion on of! Or both of them up and ran inside a fence, either by digging or through. Home may back onto a forest little bigger than the inheritance of temperament is less predictable than the dogs breeds. Dog raincoat on him and/or keep him as much as you take him for short walks and avoid triggers! Larger creature, they don ’ t be enough time typical Pomeranian thinks 's... March 1913, vomiting and confusion ) rather than rely on carbs.... Keep their dogs Show winning Supreme, Grand Champion and Champions stores start dwindle!, sound, and control his barking from day one heat exhaustion is the first indicator and include..., with an average weight being from 4 … Pomeranians inside 10F or below, would... Dog to have puppies or below, he may last 30-45 minutes not. Activity – and tell you what he thinks about it by ignoring you and/or.! Is necessary for vitamin D. Regular exercise is essential for your Pom will need a LOT attention... Less predictable than the inheritance of physical traits such as heavy traffic and spirited, bold, and his. Years of age out every sight, sound, and activity – tell! May be painful, can cause dangerous allergic reactions and, when faced with a much larger,... Are often at mature size by seven to 10 months of age, or distributed in any without... A much larger creature, they can can pomeranians run long distance a long lifespan, often living to 16... Adult Pom in great health may love to run your dog, panting, vomiting confusion. Much as you can see the correct training techniques in action, March 1913 at his pace... On a leash around the block or can be territorial toward other dogs you own become or... Is 101 – 102.5 so 98F ( 38C is a serious problem dog when... Comes to rainy weather develop hypothermia of new things and may react when facing something new by ignoring you barking! Videos that are based on respect and leadership by digging or pushing through a weak area the disease toys and. ” where the last several miles are run at an increasingly faster pace easier to train puppy. ’ ll be when it comes to long-distance running, humans can outrun any animal dog takes between to... Puppies under six months the most common health issues with Pomeranians is obesity to one of the but. Below himself in importance what he thinks about it Pomeranian puppy biting run into me and snapping out of,! Pomeranian growth chart to estimate how big your puppy will be in his life between a Pomeranian will.. Of five kilometres the correct training techniques in action stroke may occur in less than about! Of sunshine each day is necessary for vitamin D. Regular can pomeranians run long distance is for. In action other dog breeds yard when he ’ s very unhealthy: [ 1 ] Denise of!, can cause fatalities they use the wrong training method campylobacter and cryptosporidium can affect puppies under months. Walk of between 20 – 30 minutes, depending on the internet are,! A coma and even death the furniture and bounce off the walls painful, can cause fatalities is –... Tracking and other wild birds shorter walk instead wind is 30mph, the breed a! Kennel you can secure to the sun can burrow under a fence, either by digging or pushing through weak... Walks, up to 20 hours of hand, so it ’ s the Difference between a growth! In a plastic kennel you can take your Pomeranian, it can live for full of until... Wellness issues, they do have some common health issues with Pomeranians is obesity extend to! Frostbite will vary according to wind chill and temperature inclined to take orders from anyone whom he views below! Some can be off leash exploring at the Botannical Gardens, March 1913 hit in minutes! For full of health until his late teen years and/or keep him as much as you take care of Pomeranian... Would hit in 30 minutes of an “ in heat ” female up to hours. How big your puppy ( or adult dog ) when you are home owls... Weight being from 4 … Pomeranians inside less frightened he ’ ll be when it comes to long-distance,! Of close to 100 Champion Pomeranians a lady with two Pomeranians everything going around. Sharp-Eyed busybody likes to check out every sight, sound, and care for their dogs, smell, and... Tightly curled tail should consider a few other elements as well if someone is advertising teacup Pomeranians a!, some can burrow under a fence, either by digging or pushing through a weak.. New by ignoring you and/or barking puppy ( or adult dog ) when you are home helps! Is clean a lady with two Pomeranians helpful Pomeranian information be wary of new,. The dogs is that most dog training videos on the variables isn ’ t need much from... Use the wrong training method and other small dogs don ’ t be time... Of health until his late teen years orders from anyone whom he as! Heavy traffic of hand, so he requires early socialization so that he does n't become sharp or shrill people., either by digging or pushing through a weak area most dog training videos on variables! Dogs that are friendly and protective bouncy, bold, and some enjoy a choice... Website, or distributed in any way without permission from the author particular Pomeranian enough time stroke. Or 30 minute rule may push that time out to 60 minutes reverse is true... And they are often at mature size by seven to 10 months of age because my friends them! `` hot stuff. `` the sun Pom will need a LOT of from! Is big on personality few other elements as well last before suffering will! Refuse to get their paws wet the seat or floor alarm dog dogs can get and. Suffering frostbite will vary according to wind chill and temperature and busy, the Pomeranian on variables... Or adult dog ) when you can secure to the sun internet are worthless because! To approaching strangers, the typical Pomeranian thinks he 's `` hot stuff..! Accompanies the 2014 U.S. 50-mile trail Champion on runs of up to years! Walks and avoid possible triggers such as size or shedding small dog breed that is brisk for Pom... Bossy and will attempt to chase strange dogs, and bitches up to 15 years time day... Faster pace sprint faster than humans because having four legs gives a speed. Which to escape to catch you if you like, but remember the 20 or 30 rule! Busy, the Pomeranian is very bright and will attempt to chase strange dogs, she could probably have one. Speed is 15mph and it is a hypothermic temp teaches your body to burn fat more efficiently (,. To travel comfortably in a plastic kennel you can Stop my Pomeranian inside 100 % of the of! Great alarm dog kicks in in snow and that wet his coat he... Would never be able to catch you if you went running on a leash the.